Key thinkers 4

Doreeen Massey: Importance of conceptualizing time and space. How they are conceptualizes the reshapes understanding of the social world and how to effect transformations on and of it.  “Geography Matters” “layers of investment, “Spatial structures of production”: solidified and transformed by political and economical strategies and actors.  Acknowledges that ideologies of race and gender complicate her analysis. The construction of gender relations is central to patial organization of social relations (1994). Conceptualizations of time and place have problematically mapped onto the dualism feminity and masculinity. Places might be understood as “porous networks of social relations”. “power Geometry” to  emphasize how groups and individuals are positioned in these porous networks.  Concept “Space-Time” in which they are seen as insepatable: the spatial is integral to the production of history and  thus to the possibility of politics  just as the temporal is to geography (1994).

Reinterpreting the objects in space as  products of the spatial organization of relations.  The social and the spatial need to be conceptualized together.

Gillian Rose: Encouraged to consider the gendered constructions of geographical knowledge. *critiques of visual methodological approaches*Best known Book Feminism and Geography: How the approaches legitimize masculine forms of geographical knowledge, isolating women’s ways of knowing. Text Visual Methodologies (2001). Second book Colonial and Post colonial geographies: complicated relations between gender, sex, race , class and sexuality experienced through the written representations of spatial differentiation. Another book Writing Women and Space  critique to Bhabha as using masculine vocabulary and disembodiedment. The process of representation is central to everyday and to the engendering of subjects in that space. Attemts not to prioritize the ‘real’ over ‘metaphorical’space.  Space seen as performative.Bodily performances produces space.

Edward Said: All texts must be worlded, located in the world and exposed for the geographical imaginations from which they arise. Analysis of politics of cultural representation. Travel writing: creation of geographies of empire. Spatial sensitivity. Neglected gender for the most part of his framework.

David Sibley: Research of socio-spatial exclusionary processes, Maybe to maintain  cleanliness and purity (infancy). He draws on psychoanalysis : boundary making and spatia transgression through object relations theory.

Edward Soja:Centrality of Space in the constitution of society: 1. Capitalist society privileges space over time, 2. Spatiality is constitutive of social life, Space must be taken seriously to make sense of society. Space plus time plus social being. Third space is the privileged space of analysis.

Gayatri Spivak: Representations do not just describe reality, they are constitutive of it.  Western feminisms have not seen the differences between women. Offesr some pathways o the recoveryof subaltern agency. Criticized for obscurantism, respondet there is nothing outside the text. Deals with postcolonial complicities.

Nigel Thrift:
Interest in time and space, time socially constructed: rhythms of everyday life , regional geography,  Relations: among bodies and individuals, power and knowledge  and globalized exchanges of human, symbolic and financial capital. Flows of information ad knowledge that shape individuals’ conception of themselves  and play a major role in the routinal reproduction of social relations.  Geographies are produced in prediscursive practical ways. Local uniqueness maters: no social process unfolds in the same way in different places. Interest for the time and space compression of digital globalization. Non represetational theory of action that stresses performative embodied knowledges.  Human beings embedded in networks of power and knowledge construct global fluxes and connections and change the  fluid structures. Fluidity of spatial relations, contingent, ever changing.

Paul Virilo: Relationships among war and space , between military and urban perception. Undesrtanding conflict in aesthetic (perceptual) terms. Centrality of startegies of deception. Impact of technologies in geography. Technologies as prostheses – appearances . Reality usurped by reality effects. Spped and Slowness? attack. War machine  speed.

Raymond Williams: Place andclass . Widely used in geography. Blind to gender in many cases.

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Key Thinkers on Space and Place. Hubbard, Kitchin and Valentine (eds.). London: Sage.2005

chosen by me:

Benedict Anderson, Jean Baudrillard, Zygmunt Bauman, Homi K. Bhabha, Pierre Bourdieu, Judith Butler, Manuel Castells, Denis Cosgrove, Gilles Deleuze, Arturo Escobar, Michel Foucault, Stuart Hall, Donna Haraway, David Harvey, bell Hooks, Bruno Latour, Henri Lefebvre, Doreeb Massey, Gillian Rose, Edward W Said, David Sibley, Edward Soja, Gayatri Spivak, Nigel Thrift, Paul Virilio, Raymond Williams.

Some words in the Introduction:
Henri Lefebvre: No absolute space because at the moment it is colonized through social activity. Relativized and historicized. Every society and mode of production produces its own space.
Trialectics of spatiality which explores the differential entwining of cultural practices, representations and imaginations.
Perceived, conceived and lived space (Ed. Soja) Acts of naming, activities and imaginations.

Thrift (2003) Place, embodiment: Multisensory experience of place. Cognitive amd physical performances, not adequately registered through language and discourse – Non representational Theory.
Place- Rhythm

Doreen Massey: Progressive sense of Place Locus: complex intersections and outcomes of power. Body to global.  
Place: relational and contingent. Experienced and understood differently by different people: Multiple, contested, fluid and uncertain.

Landscape: Dennis Cosgrove. Gillian Rose: Gendering of space and place.
Raymond Williams : Spatialized Language.
Spatial Metaphors
Spaces: Part real. part fantasy (David Sibley)
David Harvey: How we experience and represent time and place.

Benedict Anderson: Nation, Nationality Identity.

Jean Baudrillard:  exposé of the murder of reality by its own hand.  The distinction between appearance and reality dissolves in the opposite direction, in the direction of hyperreality.

Zygmunt Bauman: Postmodernity – liquid modernity . The body has become the last shelter and sanctuary of continuity and duration. One can no longer count on things staying in place or continuing to be the way they are. It makes little senses to behave with commitment, loyalty or any other permanence evoking way.

The Stranger. Proliferation of strangers. Stranger: ambuvalent boundary straddling character all efforts of cognitive spacing in vain.
Cognitive spacing: modernity’s desire to master space.
Everybody is the other.
Moral space is hardly conmesurate with cognitive space (supression of responsibility) Aesthetic space also inhospitable to moral sensibilities.  Yet there is always hope for morality.  Being with others opens up a possibility for the ethically prior mode of being for others. The construction of space of moral responsibility is never guaranteed yet it happens daily and repeatedly.

Globalization and Glocalization. Restratification of Society based on freedom of movement . Glocalization polarizes modernity or polarizes society in terms of differential mobility: “Some inhabit the globe, others are chained to place”. New dimension of deprivation.

Homi K. Bhabha: proposed that colonizers’ stereotypes of the colonized where characterized by ambivalence: they were a form of knowledge and identification that vacillates that vacillates between what is always in place, already known and something that must be anxiously repeated . Stereotypes: authority of colonial discourse and the limits of this authority. To fix the colonized through a series of characterizations (lazy african) that were repeated a lot, showing that there was no fixity.
Bhabha found subversive potential in the verses of Naipaul. He claimed that the mimic men (the colonized) represent a paradox at the heart of the colonial mission: colonizer’s whish to europeanize the colonized  and fear that they might become too much alike. Mimicry : to make the colonized alike to the colonizer but not quite.  Colonized confronted with an uncanny version of himself.  Potential to dislodge the  very authenticity assumed by the European and to undermine its originality.

For Bhabha the colonized is a disturbance to the European’s dream of authority and authenticity.

Discourses about the Other become fractured at a point and these fractures allow resistance and countering. Politival implications of this resistance?
Colonizer ambivalent figure, as the colonized.  Ambiguous process in which the legacy is both refused and desired.

Bhabha deplored the binary thinking: blinds complex dynamics of negotiation through which displaced populations make sense of their lives across contesting cultural values and traditions.
Process of cultural translation.

Rejectiion of vocabulary such as the first and third world.
Identities are hybridized , rupturing of boundaries ç the inçbetween, cultural translation and third space to signify this liminality. Non synonimous terms . Attemps to problematize.

Criticism because of the generalization of the third space.

Pierre Bourdieu:
structuring of time and space in relation to capitalism or non capitalist time and place. Works about Algeria. Habitus.
Thrift takes his insiration from Bourdieu’s definition of practice as a going on in the worls. Practice according to Thrift can never be totally represented.

The importance of the Body.

Judith Buttler:
She herself has little to say about space and place, her ideas acout performativity have been influential.  Her notion of Performativity has been recast to theorize the concept of space.

Gender Touble? challenges the notion that masculine and feminine gender identities correspond with male and female bodies.
Moreover, she argues that the 2 sexes themselves are also social constructions  so that there is nothing natural about sex definitions.

Draws on J. L Austin. Gender is merely an inscription of discursive imperatives , we open the possibility of displacing dominant discurses.

Relationship between performativity and the material bodyç challenge to the boundaries of discursive intelligibuility .
Performativity is not a single or even deliberate act , but rather the reiterative and citational practice by which discourse produces the effects that it names (1993)

The idea of gender as performative act has challenged traditional thinking.

The sexed body as it is lived and spatially constituted. The body is becoming a preoccupation of the geographical literature.
J Cream (1995) in Resolving Riddles:  The Sexed Body has used Buttler to think about how gender is inscribed on the space of the body.

In the inaugural  issue of the feminist journal Gender, Place and Culture, Bell et al (1994), Butler’s understanding that there is a potential for transgressive politics within the parodying of heterosexual constructs. I.e. lipstick. Instead of thinking of place and space as pre existing sites, these studies have argued that bodily  performances themselves constitute or reproduce space.

Butler criticized because of not touching the issues of race and because of lack of connection between life and academia.

Other Sources to look at:

Brown M (2000) Closet Space. Geographers of Metaphor From the Body to the Globe.
Gregson N and Rose G . Taking Butler Elsewhere…

Manuel Castells:

Space: Material support of timeçsharing social practices (2002. Urban Sociology for the 21st Century. The Castells reader on cities and social Theory). Timeless time in tension with chronological time and Space of flows in tension with the space of spaces.

Networks

Denis Cosgrove:

Problematization of  the term landscape:

space and place: way of seeing. Europeans have represented to themselves and to others the world about them  and their relationship with it.

Landscape is not an unproblematic concept.

Concern with representation and mapping.