Key Thinkers on Space and Place. Hubbard, Kitchin and Valentine (eds.). London: Sage.2005

chosen by me:

Benedict Anderson, Jean Baudrillard, Zygmunt Bauman, Homi K. Bhabha, Pierre Bourdieu, Judith Butler, Manuel Castells, Denis Cosgrove, Gilles Deleuze, Arturo Escobar, Michel Foucault, Stuart Hall, Donna Haraway, David Harvey, bell Hooks, Bruno Latour, Henri Lefebvre, Doreeb Massey, Gillian Rose, Edward W Said, David Sibley, Edward Soja, Gayatri Spivak, Nigel Thrift, Paul Virilio, Raymond Williams.

Some words in the Introduction:
Henri Lefebvre: No absolute space because at the moment it is colonized through social activity. Relativized and historicized. Every society and mode of production produces its own space.
Trialectics of spatiality which explores the differential entwining of cultural practices, representations and imaginations.
Perceived, conceived and lived space (Ed. Soja) Acts of naming, activities and imaginations.

Thrift (2003) Place, embodiment: Multisensory experience of place. Cognitive amd physical performances, not adequately registered through language and discourse – Non representational Theory.
Place- Rhythm

Doreen Massey: Progressive sense of Place Locus: complex intersections and outcomes of power. Body to global.  
Place: relational and contingent. Experienced and understood differently by different people: Multiple, contested, fluid and uncertain.

Landscape: Dennis Cosgrove. Gillian Rose: Gendering of space and place.
Raymond Williams : Spatialized Language.
Spatial Metaphors
Spaces: Part real. part fantasy (David Sibley)
David Harvey: How we experience and represent time and place.

Benedict Anderson: Nation, Nationality Identity.

Jean Baudrillard:  exposé of the murder of reality by its own hand.  The distinction between appearance and reality dissolves in the opposite direction, in the direction of hyperreality.

Zygmunt Bauman: Postmodernity – liquid modernity . The body has become the last shelter and sanctuary of continuity and duration. One can no longer count on things staying in place or continuing to be the way they are. It makes little senses to behave with commitment, loyalty or any other permanence evoking way.

The Stranger. Proliferation of strangers. Stranger: ambuvalent boundary straddling character all efforts of cognitive spacing in vain.
Cognitive spacing: modernity’s desire to master space.
Everybody is the other.
Moral space is hardly conmesurate with cognitive space (supression of responsibility) Aesthetic space also inhospitable to moral sensibilities.  Yet there is always hope for morality.  Being with others opens up a possibility for the ethically prior mode of being for others. The construction of space of moral responsibility is never guaranteed yet it happens daily and repeatedly.

Globalization and Glocalization. Restratification of Society based on freedom of movement . Glocalization polarizes modernity or polarizes society in terms of differential mobility: “Some inhabit the globe, others are chained to place”. New dimension of deprivation.

Homi K. Bhabha: proposed that colonizers’ stereotypes of the colonized where characterized by ambivalence: they were a form of knowledge and identification that vacillates that vacillates between what is always in place, already known and something that must be anxiously repeated . Stereotypes: authority of colonial discourse and the limits of this authority. To fix the colonized through a series of characterizations (lazy african) that were repeated a lot, showing that there was no fixity.
Bhabha found subversive potential in the verses of Naipaul. He claimed that the mimic men (the colonized) represent a paradox at the heart of the colonial mission: colonizer’s whish to europeanize the colonized  and fear that they might become too much alike. Mimicry : to make the colonized alike to the colonizer but not quite.  Colonized confronted with an uncanny version of himself.  Potential to dislodge the  very authenticity assumed by the European and to undermine its originality.

For Bhabha the colonized is a disturbance to the European’s dream of authority and authenticity.

Discourses about the Other become fractured at a point and these fractures allow resistance and countering. Politival implications of this resistance?
Colonizer ambivalent figure, as the colonized.  Ambiguous process in which the legacy is both refused and desired.

Bhabha deplored the binary thinking: blinds complex dynamics of negotiation through which displaced populations make sense of their lives across contesting cultural values and traditions.
Process of cultural translation.

Rejectiion of vocabulary such as the first and third world.
Identities are hybridized , rupturing of boundaries ç the inçbetween, cultural translation and third space to signify this liminality. Non synonimous terms . Attemps to problematize.

Criticism because of the generalization of the third space.

Pierre Bourdieu:
structuring of time and space in relation to capitalism or non capitalist time and place. Works about Algeria. Habitus.
Thrift takes his insiration from Bourdieu’s definition of practice as a going on in the worls. Practice according to Thrift can never be totally represented.

The importance of the Body.

Judith Buttler:
She herself has little to say about space and place, her ideas acout performativity have been influential.  Her notion of Performativity has been recast to theorize the concept of space.

Gender Touble? challenges the notion that masculine and feminine gender identities correspond with male and female bodies.
Moreover, she argues that the 2 sexes themselves are also social constructions  so that there is nothing natural about sex definitions.

Draws on J. L Austin. Gender is merely an inscription of discursive imperatives , we open the possibility of displacing dominant discurses.

Relationship between performativity and the material bodyç challenge to the boundaries of discursive intelligibuility .
Performativity is not a single or even deliberate act , but rather the reiterative and citational practice by which discourse produces the effects that it names (1993)

The idea of gender as performative act has challenged traditional thinking.

The sexed body as it is lived and spatially constituted. The body is becoming a preoccupation of the geographical literature.
J Cream (1995) in Resolving Riddles:  The Sexed Body has used Buttler to think about how gender is inscribed on the space of the body.

In the inaugural  issue of the feminist journal Gender, Place and Culture, Bell et al (1994), Butler’s understanding that there is a potential for transgressive politics within the parodying of heterosexual constructs. I.e. lipstick. Instead of thinking of place and space as pre existing sites, these studies have argued that bodily  performances themselves constitute or reproduce space.

Butler criticized because of not touching the issues of race and because of lack of connection between life and academia.

Other Sources to look at:

Brown M (2000) Closet Space. Geographers of Metaphor From the Body to the Globe.
Gregson N and Rose G . Taking Butler Elsewhere…

Manuel Castells:

Space: Material support of timeçsharing social practices (2002. Urban Sociology for the 21st Century. The Castells reader on cities and social Theory). Timeless time in tension with chronological time and Space of flows in tension with the space of spaces.


Denis Cosgrove:

Problematization of  the term landscape:

space and place: way of seeing. Europeans have represented to themselves and to others the world about them  and their relationship with it.

Landscape is not an unproblematic concept.

Concern with representation and mapping.