bell Hooks: Black studies. Has theorized about Identity and about the margin not as an opposite to the centre. From becoming objects to subjects. The margin can be a place of resistance and creativity. Eventhough the home space has been criticized as patriarchal by many feminists, she saw in a black home, notwithstandng its patriarchal influences a safe place for learning and community. The concepts of identity, margin and the home place are neccesarily linked to space and place. The spatialization of difference is key to Hooks. There is a complex potential in hook’s black feminist spaces. hooks has been framed within the “Spatial Turn” creating from difference new sites of struggle and the construction of interconnected communities of resistance. The production of space is for her simultaneously material, subjective, empowering and unjust, but it also implies how multiple subaltern geographical knowledges open up new and diverse spaced for consideration. The problem is that hooks has shadowed the rest of the black intellectuals.
Peter Jackson: Issues of identity, race, masculinities. Etnicity is a construct. Maps of meaning. Has been criticized? maps are reifying. has accepted the criticism.
trying to bridge the gap between social sciences and science. In describing how actor-networks are gradually extended, stabilized and some times collapsed, he radically shifts away from a Euclidean concept of space and time as universal abstract axes that contain and constrain events . For him, as for other researches in the ACTOR NETWORK THEORY, space and time come about as consequences of the ways in which particular heterogeneous materials are related to one another. the term “topologica” is therefore used to capture this sense of space as being made out of relations between its parts.
Attribution of social agency to “actants” that can be non human or human.
Latour pursues impure entities that have characteristics of structure and agency. they are actors and networks or actor-networks. It is in the concern with how different assemblies of actants can connect up that Latourian spaces are often called “topological”.
Henri Lefebvre: Everyday life, the social production of space. everydayness as a soul destroying feature of modernity, social interaction and the material environment. He proposes to seize and act on the moments of revelation, emotional clarity and self presence as the basis for becoming more self-fulfilled.
Colaborated in the Situationniste International.
The production of space -space is cultural and has a history of change. Geographical space as fundamentally social. Rigths of individuals and communities to space. three aspects of space under which Lefebvre analyses it: The perceived: blends popular action and outlook but is often ignored in the professional, and theoretical conceived space of cartographers, urban planners or property speculators. The fully human person dwells in a lived space of the imagination which has been kept alive by arts and literature. This third space not only transcends, but has the power to refigure the balance of popular perceived space and official conceived space.
Lefebvre cites the work of dadaists and surrealists who challenge the taken for granted notions of space. In this measure the practices of squatters, illegal dwellers, etc are also challenging.
Lefebvre’s thesis against space as one part of production exchange or accumulation as castells.In addition, Lefebvre argues that space is fourth and determining realm of social relations.
Early bridge from Marxism to the formative positions of the German Green Party .
criticism? heterosexual approach, blindness to gender limit the usefulness of his theories for deminists and theorists of the body. Though Soja suggests links between bell hooks and Lefebvre.
Lefebvre has little to say on multiculturalism or discrimination or on insiders and outsiders.
However, Lefebvre went beyond in the conceptualization of space in many ways: he did not consider that people and things are merely in space.
People think of themselves in spatialized terms imagining themselves as an ego in a body. People extend themselves physically and mentally in space as a spider extends its limbs in form of a web. We become part pf these extensions as they are of us. Arrangements of objects, work teams, landscapes and architecture are the concrete instances of this spatialization.
Lefebvre uses the changing types of historical space to explain why capitalistic accumulation did not occur earlier.
Space, according to Lefebvre is a product and a medium.